Child marriage by 15
Child marriage by 18
|Are there Girls Not Brides members?||40|
|Does this country have a national strategy or plan?||Yes|
|Is there a Girls Not Brides National Partnership or coalition?||Yes|
|Age of marriage without consent or exceptions taken into account||No minimum legal age of marriage (all exceptions taken into account)|
What's the prevalence rate?
4% of boys are married before the age of 18.
Child marriage is more common in rural areas where 60% of girls are married before age 18, compared to 55% in urban areas. Regionally, across Bangladesh, Rajshahi has the highest rates of child marriage, with 70% of girls between the ages of 20-24 married before 18, Rangpur (67%), Barishal (65%), Mymensingh (64%), Khulna (62%), Dhaka (58%) and Sylhet (35%).
A 2017 World Bank/ICRW study estimated that ending child marriage in Bangladesh could see a 12% rise in earnings and productivity for Bangladeshi women who married early.
What drives child marriage in Bangladesh?
Child marriage is driven by gender inequality and the belief that girls are somehow inferior to boys.
In Bangladesh, child marriage is also driven by:
Poverty: In Bangladesh, 74% of women between the ages of 20-24 who were married before the age of 18 are from the lowest income households and 45% are from the highest income households. There is a negative association between child marriage and household wealth. Girls are frequently considered a financial burden and they are married off to alleviate the family economy. As a result, the median age of marriage for girls living in the poorest households of Bangladesh is 15 years, compared to 18 for those living in the richest households. Dowry prices typically increase as girls get older and "less attractive”, meaning many families marry girls off at a younger age. In Bangladesh, poverty has also been identified as a driver for polygamy and early child marriage. Parents are more inclined to marry their daughters off to elderly men even if they have other wives, in order to secure their daughters future.
Level of education:75% of women with no education are married before the age of 18. At the same time, the prevalence of child marriage is 25% lower for each percentage point increase in women’s secondary education. Evidence also suggests that teaching girls about their rights and building skills for modern livelihoods can reduce the likelihood of child marriage by up to one third in Bangladesh.
Gender norms and family honour: There are prevailing gender norms that underline and intertwine child marriage and family honour, including the shaming of unmarried girls, the fixation over the sexual purity of younger girls and the parental responsibility of marrying girls. Nearly seven out of 10 people in Bangladesh believe that women earn their identity and social status through marriage. Because high value is placed on the virginity of girls, child marriage is often used as a way to control pre-marital sex, protect girls from (real or perceived) sexual violence and avoid stigma in case of pregnancy out of wedlock. A 2013 national study shows that fathers are most often responsible for deciding when and whom to marry their daughters to.
Violence against women and girls: Sexual harassment and rape has increased in recent years. The number of sexual violence against women has doubled in last 10 years from 940 rapes in 2010 to 1855 in 2019, according to Bangladesh Mahila Parishad. Fear of sexual harassment, rape and kidnapping contributes in increasing the cases of child marriage because families perceived it as a protective mechanism. Dowry-related violence is common in Bangladesh, with 7,079 reported cases in 2011, 325 of which resulted in death.
Demographics: Evidence indicates that child marriage is most common in areas of Bangladesh where the adult population is skewed toward men due the traditional preference for boys and sex-selective abortion. Younger girls are being drawn into the pool of eligible marriage partners to alleviate a squeeze in the “marriage market”.
COVID-19: The COVID-19 pandemic has had a significant impact on some of the poorest households and has exacerbated the vulnerability of children. The pandemic has exposed vulnerable families to loss of financial income pushing them further into poverty and exclusion, exposing the vulnerability of young girls making them more susceptible to abuse, child marriage and adolescent pregnancy. UNICEF projections estimate that 620,000 children are expected to drop out of school in Bangladesh, and of those 350,000 are expected to be girls.
Adolescent pregnancy: Nearly five in 10 child brides give birth before the age of 18, and 8 in 10 give birth before the age of 20. The highest rates of adolescent pregnancy among child brides are found in Cumilla, Bhola, Chattogram, Jamalpur and Bagerhat. Between 2015 and 2020, for girls between the ages of 15 – 19 years, the adolescent birth rate was 74% with 24% of girls giving birth before the age of 18.
Humanitarian settings can encompass a wide range of situations before, during, and after natural disasters, conflicts, and epidemics. While gender inequality is a root cause of child marriage in both stable and crisis contexts, often in times of crisis, families see child marriage as a way to cope with greater economic hardship and to protect girls from increased violence.
In August 2017, Bangladesh received a massive influx ofRohingya refugees, fleeing persecution in Myanmar. Bangladesh is also one of the most disaster-prone countries in the world, exposed to a variety of natural hazards including cyclones, floods and earthquakes. The high population density exacerbates the impact of disasters.
Displacement: As ofMarch 2022, around 926,516 Rohingya people had settled in the Cox’s Bazar District, escaping violence in Myanmar. The International Organization for Migration (IOM) have reported instances of child marriage among young girls in refugee camps in Cox’s Bazar. Families have reported marrying off young girls to access food rations and protect them from sexual violence within camps.
Natural disasters and climate change:Natural disasters have showed to exacerbate child marriagein many regions of Bangladesh. Frequent flooding means many families live in insecure conditions and they marry off daughters as a survival tactic. For example, a 2016 UNICEF study found that the economic crises created by climate challenges are leading to an increase in child and forced marriages because the dowry is cheaper for younger girls.
What international, regional and national commitments has Bangladesh made?
Bangladesh has committed to eliminate child, early and forced marriage by 2030 in line with target 5.3 of the Sustainable Development Goals. During its Voluntary National Review at the 2017 High Level Political Forum, the government noted that women’s empowerment plays a prominent role in the Constitution of Bangladesh, the National Women Development Policy and the Child Marriage Restraint Act. In it’s 2020 Voluntary National Review, the government reiterated its commitment to ending child marriage by 2014.
Bangladesh ratified the Convention on the Rights of the Child in 1990 which sets a minimum age of marriage of 18. In 2015, the CRC Committee expressed deep concerns about the prevalence of child marriage in Bangladesh. Bangladesh acceded to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) in 1984, which obligates states to ensure free and full consent to marriage.
In 2016, as part of its periodic review, the CEDAW Committee called on Bangladesh to take measures to end the harmful practice of child marriage by addressing the root causes, raising awareness and holding accountable those responsible.
During its 2013 Universal Periodic Review, Bangladesh supported recommendations to improve efforts to protect children from forced marriage, and to more effectively implement the Child Marriage Restraint act and the Dowry Prohibition Act. During its Universal Periodic Review in 2018, Bangladesh supported similar recommendations to move towards ending child marriage, including clarifying gaps in the Child Marriage Restraint Act in order to prevent misuse of the provision allowing marriage for children below the legal age in “special circumstances”.
Bangladesh is a member of the South Asian Initiative to End Violence against Children (SAIEVAC) which adopted a regional action plan to end child marriage from 2015-2018.
Representatives of the South Asia Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC), including Bangladesh, asserted the Kathmandu Call to Action to End Child Marriage in Asia in 2014. As part of its commitment, Bangladesh will ensure access to legal remedies for child brides and establish a uniform minimum legal age of marriage of 18.
At the 2014 London Girl Summit, the Bangladeshi government signed a charter committing to end child marriage by 2020. During the Summit, the Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina also pledged that Bangladesh would end marriage under the age of 15 by 2021 and under 18 by 2041, and reduce the number of girls getting married between 15 and 18 by more than one third by 2021.
In 2019, at the Nairobi Summit on ICPD25, Bangladeshcommitted to reduce gender-based violence, including early and forced marriages, and ensuring the implementation of the National Action Plans to End Violence Against Women and to End Child Marriage.
Bangladesh is a partner country of the Global Partnership for Education (GPE).
Bangladesh is also one of 11 countries working to create child marriage-free communities by 2020 as part of the Her Choice Alliance. Since the COVID-19 Pandemic, Her Choice Alliance has been working alongside NGO Dalit to train girls on how to make their own reusable menstrual products and face masks. It is hoped that this will provide these girls with the skills to generate income and recognition within their communities and provide them with support to prevent them from abuse and child marriage.
What is the government doing to address child marriage?
Bangladesh is a focus country of the UNICEF-UNFPA Global Programme to Accelerate Action to End Child Marriage, a multi-donor, multi-stakeholder programme working across 12 countries over four years. Since 2016, UNICEF and UNFPA have implemented and supported Bangladesh in different initiatives. In 2018, the Global Programme established anti-sexual harassment committees in 72 secondary schools and trained committee members on how to prevent sexual harassment in schools.
In the 2020 annual report of the Global Programme to end child marriage established:
The #Raisethebeat4ECM campaign which used social media and TV to foster public engagement on child marriage. The adolescent-focussed TV drama Icchedana(On the Wings of Wishes) complimented this campaign.
In partnership with the Directorate of Secondary and Higher Education, provided safe water, sanitation, hygiene and menstrual health management to 73 secondary schools.
The Alapon helpline provided counselling to more than 17,000 adolescents on sexual and reproductive health and served 13,000 child brides who needed family planning services during the pandemic.
In response to the COVID-19 restrictions, the government develop online mechanisms to reach adolescents by phone and social media to asses violence against children.
USAID fundedUjjiban Social Behaviour Change Communication project2017-2022, implemented by John Hopkins University is the leading campaign to improve health in Bangladesh and increase knowledge on adolescent pregnancy and investing in girls’ education. This project aims to raise awareness on the current laws in Bangladesh that prohibit child marriage and provide mechanisms to report incidences of child marriage and victim support.
With the support of UNICEF, and despite stagnation of progress due to the backlash against regressive legal proposals, in August 2018 the much-awaited National Action Plan to Eliminate Child Marriage 2018-2030 (NAP) was launched under the leadership of the Ministry of Women and Children Affairs, to implement the commitment of the Prime Minister and the Multi-Sectoral Programme on Violence Against Women of the Ministry of Women and Children Affairs.
Alongside the Ministry of Women and Children Affairs (MOWCA), USAID is a project partner for the 10-year National Plan of Action to End Child Marriage in Bangladesh 2018-2030. The multi-sectoral National Plan of Action is the result of consultations at national and sub-national levels with different stakeholders, including civil society and adolescent girls and boys themselves. The goal of the NAP is to end the marriage of girls below 15 years of age, to reduce by one third the rate of marriage for girls below 18 years by 2021, and to eliminate child marriage by 2041. There are five implementation strategies in the NAP:
Strategy 1: Take action to implement sector specific policies as per demand and necessity of children and adolescents.
Strategy 2: Ensure amendment and implementation of laws, proper formulation of policies and accountability.
Strategy 3: Develop positive social values and norms through influencing, supporting and engaging families, communities and policymakers for preventing child marriage.
Strategy 4: Ensure empowerment of adolescent girls and boys as an agent of social change.
Strategy 5: Promote the digitalization of education, legal, reproductive health facilities of adolescents as well as social protection system of children and ensure appropriate incentives for adolescent girls.
A monitoring and evaluation framework for the NAP was meant to be developed in 2019.
In preparation for the launch of the National Action Plan, in 2017 Bangladesh also carried out, with the support of UNICEF, a scoping analysis of the budget allocation to end child marriage. This study found that only 1.2% of the total budget of Bangladesh was dedicated to end child marriage.
In 2018, UNFPA also supported the setting up of a Parliamentary sub-committee on “preventing gender-based violence including ending child marriage”.
In February 2017, Parliament adopted a revised Child Marriage Restraint Act which is a strengthen version of the previous Act, despite widespread concerns over a provision allowing child marriage in ‘special cases’.The Act does not define what constitutes a special case. Since then, different voices have raised the alarm that such a provision will legitimise statutory rape and encourage child marriage. The President signed the bill into law on 11 March 2017. Bangladesh also made it compulsory to present a birth certificate at the time of marriage.
In October 2018 Bangladesh published “Child Marriage Restraint Rule” which provides further explanation and implementation mechanism of “Child Marriage Restraint Act 2017”. The rule also explains formation of committees at national and local level to restraint child marriage and the roles and responsibilities of the committees.
A costed National Adolescent Health Strategy (2017–2030) specifically mentions child marriage as a form of violence against adolescents, and sets strategic objectives to end child marriage, mitigate its consequences and raise awareness.
In recent years, Bangladesh has also implemented at least two national awareness raising campaign ran on radio, television, print mediaand social media with comprehensive messages on ending child marriage, and has set up a National Helpline to prevent violence against women, including child marriage.
Previous initiatives include the Child Marriage Free Unions (unions are the smallest rural government units in Bangladesh), which are movements led by local government and facilitated by Plan Bangladesh with the aim of enforcing existing law more effectively.
What is the minimum legal framework around marriage?
The minimum legal age for marriage in Bangladesh is 18 years for girls and 21 for boys.
However, the Child Marriage Restraint Act 2017 includes a loophole where a court can allow child marriage in “special cases” (for both girls and boys). The Act does not explicitly define what those “special cases” might be, but there is fear that this loophole will allow girls under 18 in cases of rape and early pregnancy to marry their perpetrators to avoid social stigma and shame.
In this country we have a national partnership. Many Girls Not Brides member organisations have come together to accelerate progress to end child marriage in their countries by forming National Partnerships and coalitions. Below is an overview of what and where these networks are, what they do and how they work with Girls Not Brides.
CRANK Research Spotlight: Successful multisectoral and multilevel approaches to address child marriage
Brief summarising the latest research and evidence, with key takeaways from featured studies, and highlighting current evidence and funding gaps. It also includes tools for practitioners to strengthen design and…
Harnessing data to end child marriage: Summarizing learnings to-date
This brief was developed by Population Council Girl Innovation, Research, and Learning (GIRL) Center. It summarizes the key findings from five papers published as part of a special issue examining…
Conceptual framework of the drivers of child marriage: A tool to guide programs and policies
This brief was developed by Population Council's Girl Innovation, Research, and Learning (GIRL) Center. It provides key entry points for understanding which drivers of child marriage may be most important…
Tipping point baseline executive study: Understanding the root causes of child marriage
Baseline findings from Care's Tipping point evaluation of the social norms and expectations that underpin child marriage in Bangladesh and Nepal.
- Alston, M., et al., Are Climate Challenges Reinforcing Child and Forced Marriage and Dowry as Adaptation Strategies in the Context of Bangladesh?, Women’s Studies International Forum 47, Part A: 137-144, 2014, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wsif.2014.08.005 (accessed December 2019).
- Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics and UNICEF Bangladesh, A Scoping Analysis of Budget Allocations for Ending Child Marriage in Bangladesh, 2017, https://www.unicef.org/bangladesh/en/reports/ending-child-marriage-bangladesh (accessed December 2019).
- Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics and UNICEF Bangladesh, Ending Child Marriage in Bangladesh: What Matters for Change? Exploring preferences, beliefs and norms: A Discussion Paper, 2018.
- Child Marriage Restraint Rule, 2018, http://childmarriage-mis.org/files/Child%20Marriage%20Rules%20(Bangla).pdf(accessed April 2020).
- Committee on the Rights of the Child, Concluding observations on the fifth periodic report of Bangladesh, CRC/C/BGD/CO/5, 2015, http://docstore.ohchr.org/SelfServices/FilesHandler.ashx?enc=6QkG1d%2fPPRiCAqhKb7yhslfX7rWprMjlfvpLtNQOsgQIo8pRQ83suSziXopscKvIMVb7YIq0kQ18iJt8MRshjEQcv0wpKKK%2bqdQoduuNbtQGX8kqZTOtwy%2fgQlOPS%2b%2bo (accessed December 2019).
- Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women, Concluding observations on the eighth periodic report of Bangladesh, CEDAW/C/BGD/CO/8, 2016, p. 4-5, https://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/15/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CEDAW%2fC%2fBGD%2fCO%2f8&Lang=en (accessed December 2019).
- Dhaka Tribune, Sexual violence against women hits record levels this decade, [website], 2019, https://www.dhakatribune.com/bangladesh/2019/11/26/sexual-violence-against-women-hits-record-levels-this-decade (accessed April 2019).
- European Commission, Bangladesh, [website], 2019, https://ec.europa.eu/echo/where/asia-and-pacific/bangladesh_en (accessed December 2019).
- Girl Summit 2014, The Girl Summit Charter on Ending FGM and Child, Early and Forced Marriage, [website], 2015, https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/459236/Public_Girl_Summit_Charter_with_Signatories.pdf (accessed December 2019).
- Government of Bangladesh, Eradicating poverty and promoting prosperity in a changing world. Voluntary National Review (VNR), https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/content/documents/15826Bangladesh.pdf (accessed December 2019).
- Government of the United Kingdom, UK international development minister Lynne Featherstone visits Bangladesh, [website], 2014, https://www.gov.uk/government/news/uk-international-development-minister-lynne-featherstone-visits-bangladesh (accessed December 2019).
- Government of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh, Voluntary National Review 2020, 2020, https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/content/documents/26303VNR_2020_Bangladesh_Report.pdf (accessed April 2022).
- Global Partnership for Education, Bangladesh, [website], https://www.globalpartnership.org/where-we-work/bangladesh (accessed December 2019).
- Her Choice, [website], http://www.her-choice.org/en/her-choice/programme/ (accessed December 2019).
- Her Choice Alliance, Empowering girls in Bangladesh, 2020, http://www.her-choice.org/en/child-marriage-en/empowering-girls-in-bangladesh/ (accessed April 2022).
- Human Rights Council, Report of the Working Group on the Universal Periodic Review. Bangladesh. Universal periodic review, A/HRC/39/12, 2018, p. 14, https://ap.ohchr.org/documents/dpage_e.aspx?si=A/HRC/39/12 (accessed December 2019).
- Human Rights Watch, Bangladesh: Legalizing Child Marriage Threatens Girls’ Safety, 2017, https://www.hrw.org/news/2017/03/02/bangladesh-legalizing-child-marriage-threatens-girls-safety (accessed December 2019).
- Human Rights Watch, Marry Before Your House is Swept Away, Child Marriage in Bangladesh, 2015, https://www.hrw.org/report/2015/06/09/marry-your-house-swept-away/child-marriage-bangladesh (accessed December 2019)
- International Center for Research on Women and Plan Asia Regional Office, Asia Child Marriage Initiative: Summary of Research in Bangladesh, India and Nepal, 2016, https://www.icrw.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/10/PLAN-ASIA-Child-Marriage-3-Country-Study.pdf (accessed December 2019).
- IOM, UN Migration Director General Warns of Increasing Reports of Violent Sexual Assaults against Rohingya, [website], 2017, https://www.iom.int/news/un-migration-director-general-warns-increasing-reports-violent-sexual-assaults-against-rohingya (accessed December 2019)
- MacQuarrie, K. L. D., et al., Trends, Inequalities, and Contextual Determinants of Child Marriage in Asia, DHS Analytical Studies No. 69, 2019, https://www.dhsprogram.com/pubs/pdf/AS69/AS69.pdf (accessed December 2019).
- Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of the People's Republic of Bangladesh, National Strategy for Adolescent Health, 2017-2030, 2016, http://coastbd.net/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/National-Strategy-for-Adolescent-Health-2017-2030-Final-Full-Book-21-06-17.pdf (accessed December 2019).
- Nairobi Summit, To reduce MMR, tackle unmet need for FP, prevent and respond to GBV and harness the DD in conformity with SDGs, mobilizing adequate resources, exploring new and innovative financing instruments, including South-South and Triangular Cooperation, [website], 2019, http://www.nairobisummiticpd.org/commitment/reduce-mmr-tackle-unmet-need-fp-prevent-and-respond-gbv-and-harness-dd-conformity-sdgs (accessed December 2019).
- National Institute of Population Research and Training, ,Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey 2017-2018, 2020, https://dhsprogram.com/pubs/pdf/FR344/FR344.pdf (accessed November 2021).
- National Institute of Population Research and Training and ICF, Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey 2017-18: Key Indicators, 2019, https://www.dhsprogram.com/pubs/pdf/PR104/PR104.pdf (accessed December 2019).
- National Institute of Population Research and Training, Mitra and Associates and ICF International, Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey 2014, 2016, https://dhsprogram.com/pubs/pdf/FR311/FR311.pdf (accessed December 2019).
- National Institute of Population Research and Training, Mitra and Associates and ICF International, Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey 2011, 2013, https://dhsprogram.com/pubs/pdf/FR265/FR265.pdf (accessed December 2019).
- Plan, Report on Child Marriage Free Unions, 2013, https://www.girlsnotbrides.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/04/Plan-Bangladesh-Report-on-Child-Marriage-Free-Unions.pdf (accessed December 2019).
- Plan International, Bangladesh Child Marriage Law could violate girls’ rights, [website], 2017, https://plan-international.org/news/2017-02-06-bangladesh-child-marriage-law-could-violate-girls-rights (accessed December 2019).
- Plan International, Child Marriage in Bangladesh: Findings from a National Survey, 2013, https://plan-international.org/publications/child-marriage-bangladesh-findings-national-survey (accessed December 2019).
- Plan International, Submission to the Report of the United Nations Secretary-General on Progress Towards Ending Child, Early and Forced Marriage Worldwide, 2016, https://www.ohchr.org/Documents/Issues/Women/WRGS/Earlyforcedmarriage/NGOs_Individuals/PlanInternational.pdf (accessed December 2019).
- Population Council, New Evidence Shows What Works to Delay Child Marriage in Bangladesh, [website], 2016, http://www.popcouncil.org/news/new-population-council-evidence-shows-what-works-to-delay-child-marriage-in (accessed December 2019).
- Relief Web, The Rohingya Crisis in Numbers, [website], 2017, https://reliefweb.int/report/bangladesh/rohingya-crisis-numbers (accessed December 2019).
- UN General Assembly, Report of the Working Group on the Universal Periodic Review Bangladesh, 2013, p.19, http://www.ohchr.org/EN/HRBodies/UPR/Pages/BDIndex.aspx (accessed December 2019).
- UNICEF, Ending child marriage: A profile of progress in Bangladesh, 2020, https://www.unicef.org/bangladesh/media/4526/file/Bangladesh%20Child%20Marriage%20report%202020.pdf.pdf (accessed April 2022).
- UNICEF, The state of the world’s children 2021, 2021, https://www.unicef.org/media/108161/file/SOWC-2021-full-report-English.pdf (accessed April 2022).
- UNICEF, Learning to live in a changing climate the impact of climate change on children in Bangladesh, 2016, https://www.unicef.org/bangladesh/media/1941/file/UNICEF_Bangladesh_Climate_Change.pdf (accessed April 2022).
- UNICEF, Humanitarian Situation report No.52 (Rohingya influx), July 2019, https://www.unicef.org/appeals/files/UNICEF_Bangladesh_Humanitarian_SitRep_Mid_Year_2019.pdf (accessed December 2019).
- UNICEF Bangladesh, Beyond Survival. Rohingya Refugee Children In Bangladesh Want To Learn, 2019, https://www.unicef.org/bangladesh/media/2536/file/UNICEF%20Advocacy%20Alert%202019.pdf (accessed December 2019).
- UNICEF Bangladesh, Plan of Action launched to eliminate child marriage in Bangladesh, [website], https://www.unicef.org/bangladesh/en/press-releases/plan-action-launched-eliminate-child-marriage-bangladesh (accessed December 2019).
- UNICEF Bangladesh, Young Lives Matter. UNICEF interventions to improve the lives of adolescents in Bangladesh, 2019, https://www.unicef.org/bangladesh/en/reports/young-lives-matter (accessed December 2019).
- UNICEF-UNFPA, Global Programme to Accelerate Action to End Child Marriage, [website], https://www.unicef.org/protection/57929_92681.html (accessed December 2019)
- UNICEF-UNFPA, ACT NOW: Accelerating gender equality by eliminating child marriage in a pandemic, 2021, https://www.unfpa.org/sites/default/files/pub-pdf/Act%20now_GPECM_AnnualReport2020.pdf (accessed April 2022).
- UNHCR, Joint government of Bangladesh – UN population map as of 31 March 2022, 2022, https://data2.unhcr.org/en/documents/details/92092 (accessed April 2022).
- United Nations Children’s Fund and United Nations Population Fund, Child Marriage in South Asia: An evidence review, 2019, https://www.unicef.org/rosa/reports/ending-child-marriage-south-asia (accessed December 2019).
- United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) and United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), Key Drivers of the Changing Prevalence of Child Marriage in Three Countries in South Asia: Working Paper, 2018, https://www.unicef.org/rosa/reports/key-drivers-changing-prevalence-child-marriage-three-countries-south-asia (accessed December 2019).
- United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) and United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), The Global Programme to Accelerate Action to End Child Marriage - 2018 Annual Report Country Profiles, 2019, https://www.unfpa.org/sites/default/files/resource-pdf/UNFPA-2.PDF (accessed December 2019).
- United Nations, Sustainable Development Knowledge Platform, [website], 2017, https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/sdg5 (accessed December 2019).
- USAID, USAID launches campaign to prevent child marriage in Bangladesh, 2021, https://www.usaid.gov/bangladesh/press-releases/jul-29-2021-usaid-launches-campaign-prevent-child-marriage-bangladesh (accessed April 2022).
- USAID, COVID-19 impact on children COVID-19 situational analysis Bangladesh, 2021, https://reliefweb.int/sites/reliefweb.int/files/resources/Bangladesh%20Final%20Thematic%20Report%20May%202021_AN.pdf (accessed April 2022).
- VOA News, Food and Safety Concerns Fuel Rise in Refugee Rohingya Child Brides, [website], 2017, https://www.voanews.com/a/rohingya-child-marriages-common-amid-food-crisis/4160049.htm l(accessed April 2020).
- World Bank and International Center for Research on Women, Economic Impacts of Child Marriage: Global Synthesis Report, 2017, http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/530891498511398503/pdf/116829-WP-P151842-PUBLIC-EICM-Global-Conference-Edition-June-27.pdf (accessed December 2019).